A useful site helps you to learn English easier.

OFFERS for members Your ads here 150x60
Our Furniture Grammar2Easy Your ads here 150x60 Your ads here 150x60

achieve achieved, achieving, achievement (not -ei-)
acknowledgement/ Both spellings are correct but be
acknowledgment consistent within one piece of writing.
acquaint acquainted (not aq-)
acquaintance (not -ence)
acquiesce acquiesced, acquiescing (not aq-)
acquiescence (not -ance)
acquire acquired, acquiring, acquisition
(not aq-)
acreage Note that there are three syllables here.
(not acrage)
across (not accross)
adapter or adaptor? Traditional usage would distinguish
between these two words and reserve
-er for the person (an adapter of novels,
for instance) and -or for the piece of
electrical equipment. However, the
distinction has become very blurred and
the two spellings are considered by many
authorities to be interchangeable. Use
either for both meanings but be consistent
within a single piece of writing.
addendum (singular) addenda (plural)
adding endings Usually endings (suffixes) can be added to
base words without any complications.
You just add them and that is that!
e.g. iron + ing = ironing
steam + er = steamer
list + less = listless
However, there are four groups of words
which need especial care. Fortunately,
there are some straightforward rules
which save your learning thousands of
words individually.
(i) The 1-1-1 rule
This rule applies to:
words of ONE syllable
ending with ONE consonant
preceded by ONE vowel
e.g. drop, flat, sun, win.
When you add an ending beginning
with a consonant to a l-l-l word, there
is no change to the base word:
drop + let = droplet
flat + ly = flatly
win + some = winsome
When you add an ending beginning
with a vowel to a l-l-l word, you
double the final letter of the base
drop + ed = dropped
flat + est = flattest
win + ing = winning
sun + *y = sunny
*y counts as a vowel when it
sounds like i or e.
Treat qu as one letter:
quit + ing = quitting
quip + ed = quipped
Don’t double final w and x. They
would look very odd and so we have
tax + ing = taxing
paw + ed = pawed
(ii) The magic -e rule
This rule applies to all words ending
with a silent -e.
e.g. hope, care, achieve, sincere,
When you add an ending beginning
with a consonant, keep the -e:
hope + ful = hopeful
care + less = careless
sincere + ly = sincerely
separate + ly = separately
achieve + ment = achievement
When you add an ending beginning
with a vowel, drop the -e:
hope + ing = hoping
care + er = carer
sincere + ity = sincerity
separate + ion = separation
achieve + ed = achieved
Do, however, keep the -e in words
like singeing (different from singing)
and dyeing (different from dying) and
whenever you need to keep the
identity of the base word clear (e.g.
shoeing, canoeing).
Do remember to keep the -e with
soft c and soft g words. It’s the e that
keeps them soft (courageous,
traceable). (See SOFT C AND SOFT G.)
Don’t keep the -e with these eight
exceptions to the rule: truly, duly,
ninth, argument, wholly, awful,
whilst, wisdom.
(iii) -y rule
This rule applies to all words ending
in -y. Look at the letter before the -y
in the base word.
It doesn’t matter at all what kind of
ending you are adding. When you add
an ending to a word ending in a
vowel + y, keep the y:
portray + ed = portrayed
employ + ment = employment
When you add an ending to a word
ending in a consonant + y, change
the y to i:
try +al = trial
empty + er = emptier
pity + less = pitiless
lazy + ness = laziness
Do keep the y when adding -ing. Two
i’s together would look very odd,
despite our two words ski-ing and
try + ing = trying
empty + ing = emptying
Don’t apply the rule in these fourteen
cases: daily, gaily, gaiety, laid, paid,
said, slain, babyhood, shyly, shyness,
dryness, slyness, wryly, wryness.
(iv) The 2-1-1 rule
This rule applies to:
words of TWO syllables
ending with ONE consonant
preceded by ONE vowel.
With this rule, it all depends on
which syllable of the word is stressed.
The 2-1-1 words below are stressed
on the first syllable, and both vowel
and consonant endings are added
without any complications:
gossip gossiping
target targeted
limit limitless
eager eagerness
But note that kidnap, outfit, worship,
always double their final letter:
kidnapped, outfitter, worshipping
Take care with 2-1-1 words which are
stressed on the second syllable. There
is no change when you add a
consonant ending:
forget + ful = forgetful
equip + ment = equipment
Double the final consonant of the base
word when you add a vowel ending:
forget + ing = forgetting
equip + ed = equipped
forbid + en = forbidden
begin + er = beginner
This rule is really valuable but you
must be aware of some exceptions:
" 2-1-1 words ending in -l seem to have
a rule all of their own. Whether the
stress is on the first or the second
syllable, there is no change when a
quarrel + some = quarrelsome
instal + ment = instalment
Double the -l when adding a vowel
quarrel + ing = quarrelling
instal + ed = installed
excel + ent = excellent
" Notice how the change of stress in
these words affects the spelling:
confer conferred conferring conference
defer deferred deferring deference
infer inferred inferring inference
prefer preferred preferring preference
refer referred referring reference
transfer transferred transferring transference


Post a Comment